The Custard Apple has established its medicinal properties for decades. Still it is not a fruit which is commonly consumed as this is a seasonal fruit. Sitaphal (Custard Apple) is a fruit from the small tree named Annona squamosa which belongs to the Family Annonaceae of the order Magnoliales. It is also called custard apple
Sitafal contains a various amount of elements. If someone have taken 100 gms of edible portion of the fruit, then the energy will gain by the person 104 kcal along with Protein 1.6 gm, Fat 0.4 gm, Carbohydrates 23.5 gm, Fibre 3.1 gm, Calcium 17mg, Phosphorus 47mg, Iron 4.37 mg and Vitamin C 37 mg
Antioxidant Activity In the Taiwanese study, the antioxidant activity in mature fruits of 36 species and varieties produced in Taiwan was analyzed by the ferric reducing antioxidant power . In this study, sugar apple was categorized as having very high antioxidant activity i.e >70mmol/100g edible part. Many studies including conducted in India showed that extracts of Annona squamosa, Annona cherimola and Annona muricata have high antioxidant activity.
fresh custard apple fruit potently lowered plasma triglyceride concentrations by 65% of mice fed a moderately high fat diet for four weeks and exhibited a potent inhibitory effect on adipogenesis reducing fat tissue by about 20%. This anti dyslipidemic action is significant in prevention of cardiovascular morbidity
Among the 14 isolated compounds in a study, -dihydroxy-entkauran-19-oic acid showed significant activity against HIV replication in H9 lymphocyte cells with an EC50 value of 0.8 μg/m
Studies in rabbit showed that 5 g of semi-dried pulp of sugar apple per kg of body weight was effective as a supplement in anti-diabetic treatment. This amounts to eating one eighth of normal custard apple in humans. The probable mechanism may be due to increased sensitivity to insulin
Tumor cells have three distinguishing properties like they have a transport mechanism to transport glucose faster into them, they develop new blood vessels called neoangiogenesis, thereby getting more nutrients diverting from normal cells and they also have a MDR (multi drug resistance) protein expression which throws out a drug from the cell saving them from the killing actions of the anticancer drugs.
The anti-cancer properties of custard apple appear to be mainly due to a class of compounds called acetogenins which are specific to Annonaceaous species. Acetogenins have been tested in vitro against 60 types of cancer cells, including breast, prostate and colon.
The fruit of Annona spp. have been shown to have anti-microbial activities due to several compounds which include Ent-kauranes, Acetogenins, essential oils and Benzylisoquinolines alkaloids. The anti-bacterial activity of the crude methanol extract of sugar apple and an isolated diterpene, against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumonia is being established. There are also reports of chemicals which are also active against Candida albicans, proteus