Tomato | Very famous vegetable tomato benefits uses - Health & Food
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      Tomato is very famous vegetable  benefits uses reseaches

Tomato is the second most consumed and widely grown vegetable in the world after potato. Tomato is popular fresh and in many processed forms (e.g. ketchup, canned whole or in pieces, puree, sauce, soup, juice, or sundried).

In addition to their culinary role in the diet, tomatoes represent a low energy dense food with unique constituents that may positively affect health.

Compositionally, the tomato has a unique nutritional and phytochemical profile. The major phytochemicals in tomato are the carotenoids consisting of 60% to 64% lycopene, 10% to 12% phytoene, 7% to 9% neurosporene, and 10% to 15% carotenes.

Tamotoes
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Based on a fresh weight basis, tomato (on average) contains about 35 mg/kg of lycopene, with red cultivars containing in average 90 mg/kg of lycopene and yellow ones only 5 mg/kg .

Processed tomatoes (sauce, paste, juice, and ketchup) contain 2- to 40-fold higher lycopene than fresh tomatoes . Tomatoes and tomato-based foods are the world richest sources of lycopene.The average daily intake of lycopene in the human diet is about 25 mg/day; nearly 85 percent is obtained from fresh and processed tomato products.

Tomato contains significant amounts of α-, β-, γ-, δ-carotene ranging in concentrations form 0.6 to 2.0 mg/kg , which ranks tomato as the fourth leading-contributor of provitamin A and vitamin A in the American diet . In addition to lycopene, tomatoes are one of the top contributors of potassium in developed countries and in the American diet.

Tamato rank in potassium foods

Based on a 1999-2000 USA National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey food intake data, tomatoes rank seventh after milk, potatoes, beef, coffee, poultry, and orange/grapefruit juice as a potassium source. Besides in USA potassium is a nutrient of concern, as most Americans consume amounts well below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI).

In 2004, the new adult DRI for potassium (4700 mg) was substantially higher than the amount previously reported in the 1989 Recommended Dietary Allowance (3500 mg) . The increased recommendation was based on evidence indicating that 4700 mg potassium should help lower blood pressure, reduce the adverse effect of excess sodium intake on blood pressure, reduce the risk of kidney stones, and possibly reduce age-related bone loss.

Tomatoes provide at least twice the potassium per 100 kcal compared with other common sources, except coffee, a nonsignificant calorie source of potassium. Consuming potassium from fruits and vegetables is ideal because it occurs with a biologically advantageous ratio of bicarbonate or citrate, important for bone health. Increasing potassium intake through increased tomato intake is a healthful, calorically sensible strategy for world developed countries.

Tamato sources :

  • Tomato fruits are also an excellent source of ascorbic acid, about 200 mg/kg and are the major source of vitamin C next to citrus . Tomato contains small but significant amounts (1 – 2 mg/kg) of lutein, α-, β-, and γ- tocopherols, and conjugated flavonoids .
  • In a study of 20 tomato cultivars, total flavonoids content ranged from 1.3 to 22.2 mg/kg with about 98% present in the skin . Flavonoids in fresh tomato are present only in the conjugated form as quercetin and kaempferol
  • But processed tomato products contain significant amounts of free flavonoids  Flavonoids content is affected by cultivar and culture. For example, cherry tomatoes have a markedy d higher flavonoids content than standard or beef tomato cultivars and field-grown fruits have higher flavonoids content than greenhousegrown .
  • Tomato cultivars are available with double the normal vitamin C (Doublerich), forty times normal vitamin A , high levels of anthocyanin (resulting in purple tomatoes), and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene (numerous available cultivars with the high crimson gene).
  • Tomato lycopene is found in appreciable levels in human serum and tissues when tomatoes and tomato products are consumed frequently . Several research investigations have shown an inverse relationship between plasma/serum lycopene concentrations and risk of some cancers .

Tamato health benefits :

    • Similar associations have been reported for markers of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, cognitive function, and body weight. Moreover, relationships between dietary intakes of tomato products or tomato extract supplements have been observed in epidemiological studies and clinical trials examining markers of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, and ultraviolet light-induced skin erythema .
    • The majority of research conducted in the area of tomato and lycopene intake and cancer risk has been observational. In a recent review of the literature, 178 original research articles were compiled reporting findings in humans on the relationship between lycopene, tomatoes and tomato-based products, and cancer risk .

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    • Among these publications, nearly 90% were observational, highlighting the paucity of cause and effect investigations in this area. Reports on 13 cancer types were identified, of which breast, colorectal, gastric/upper gastrointestinal, and prostate cancers have the most original research published in humans, ranging from 17 to 60 publications.
    • For breast, colorectal, and gastric cancers, the data support a neutral, although potentially protective, relationship between tomato/lycopene intake and cancer risk. Although the data are limited for gastric and lung cancers; the protective association is strongest with tomato intake verses dietary lycopene intake.
    • Among the cancers investigated relative to lycopene and tomato intake, prostate cancer is the most widely researched. Although randomized controlled trial data are less available than observation data, a small number of dietary intervention trials using processed tomato products have been conducted.
    • The results have been relatively successful as measured by improvements in prostate-specific antigen concentrations or increased apoptotic cell death in carcinomas . A prostate cancer risk reduction of nearly 35% was observed when the test subjects consumed ten or more servings of tomato products per week and the effect was much stronger for subjects with more aggressive and advanced stages of cancer .
    • People consuming diets rich in tomato and tomato based products, which are rich in the carotenoid lycopene were found to be less likely to develop stomach and rectal cancers than those who consume lesser amounts of lycopene rich vegetables .
  • Tomatoes, with their distinctive nutritional attributes may play also an important role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular and associated diseases through their bioactivity in modulating disease process pathways.
    Tamotas
                         Tamotoes

    Tamato researches :

      • Reported an inverse association for women consuming greater intakes 7 servings per weekof tomato-based products and cardiovascular disease; an association not observed with lycopene intake alone. Several hypotheses are being tested related to the antioxidant properties of lycopene and a combination of carotenoids with coexisting water-soluble constituents delivered by tomatoes, such as vitamin C.
      • The antioxidant capacity of plasma decreases when tomatoes and tomato products are removed from the diet and increased when they are added back. Consuming tomato products daily for 2 to 4 weeks increases antioxidant enzyme defenses and has been shown to reduce plasma lipid peroxides and the susceptibility of low density lipoprotein to oxidation .
      • Oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein is a key step in the development of atherosclerotic lesions . Consuming diets with appreciable amounts of antioxidants from plant foods, such as tomatoes, to inhibit the oxidative process of low density lipoprotein may be one way to reduce the risk of cardiovascular atherosclerotic disease.
      • One study (n = 60) in relatively healthy individuals  and 2 studies (n = 40 and n = 57) in individuals with type 2 diabetes, who are in a relatively pro-oxidant state, showed decreased lipid peroxidation rates  and decreased susceptibility of low-density lipoproteins to oxidation  after daily consumption of tomatoes or tomato juice.Others have reported less susceptibility to oxidation of DNA and low density lipoprotein  after tomato product consumption delivering approximately half (or more) of the lycopene dose typically used in lycopene supplementation studies.
      • These data suggest that the health benefits of tomato/tomato product consumption are not solely because of lycopene content, but rather the result of the combination of nutrients and bioactive constituents delivered when the whole food is consumed. Tomatoes and tomato products are also being investigated for possible anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, and lipid-lowering effects. Supplementation of a low tomato diet with tomato products produces mixed results as measured by changes in inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6, and tumor ne
      • crosis factor-a. Jacob reported decreased CRP after a 2-week tomato juice supplementation containing approximately 21 mg lycopene and 2 levels of vitamin C (45.5 mg and 435 mg, respectively). Both juices reduced CRP as well as total cholesterol concentration.
    • Natural antithrombotic agents that influence platelet function or fibrinolytic activity are of interest as primary and seconddary cardiopreventive strategies. Aqueous extracts from tomatoes have been shown to display antiplatelet activity in vitro .

    Subsequent research in humans shows significant reductions in ex vivo platelet aggregation 3 hours after supplementation with tomato extract from the yellowish membrane surrounding seeds in amounts equivalent to 2 or 6 fresh tomatoes .

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